A History of Apple’s Operating Systems


Mac OS X is a unique operating system in that it represents a rather successful coming together of paradigms, ideologies, and technologies that have usually resisted each other in the past. It is a result of the trials and tribulations of Apple and NeXT, as well as their user and developer communities.  Mac OS X is perhaps one of the best examples of how a capable system can result through the direct or indirect efforts of corporations, academic and research communities, the Open Source and Free Software movements, and even individuals.

Apple has been around since 1976, and many accounts of its history have been told. If the story of Apple as a company is fascinating, so is the “technical” story of Apple’s operating systems.

This document discusses operating systems that Apple has created in the past, and many that it tried to create. Through this discussion, we will come across several technologies the confluence of which eventually led to Mac OS X. An important goal of the discussion is to better understand the reasons, and if possible, the rationale behind Mac OS X and its important components. This, in turn, will be helpful in understanding and appreciating the system as it is today.

My approach in this discussion is to have somewhat high magnitudes of the depth and breadth of historical coverage, as long as I believe the discussion is interesting and relevant from a system design perspective, within reason. For example, while I will briefly describe “the influence of Xerox PARC” and the background of Mach, I will not go to farcical limits and talk about the invention of the transistor, or the discovery of Silicon.

For more information, please visit: kernelthread.com

Mac OSx – an overview

Mac OS X (pronounced /ˈmæk ˌoʊ ˌɛs ˈtɛn/) is a series of Unix-based operating systems and graphical user interfaces developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. Since 2002, Mac OS X has been included with all new Macintosh computer systems. It is the successor to Mac OS 9, released in 1999, the final release of the “classic” Mac OS, which had been Apple’s primary operating system since 1984.

Mac OS X, whose X is the Roman numeral for 10 and is a prominent part of its brand identity, is a Unix-based graphical operating system, built on technologies developed at NeXT between the second half of the 1980s and Apple’s purchase of the company in late 1996. From its sixth release, Mac OS X v10.5 “Leopard” and onward, every release of Mac OS X gained UNIX 03 certification while running on Intel processors.

The first version released was Mac OS X Server 1.0 in 1999, and a desktop-oriented version, Mac OS X v10.0 “Cheetah” followed on March 24, 2001. Releases of Mac OS X are named after big cats: for example, Mac OS X v10.7 is usually referred to by Apple and users as “Lion”. The server edition, Mac OS X Server, is architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart, and includes tools to facilitate management of workgroups of Mac OS X machines, and to provide access to network services. These tools include a mail transfer agent, an LDAP server, a domain name server, and others. It is pre-loaded on Apple’s Xserve server hardware, but can be run on almost all of Apple’s current selling computer models.

Courtesy: Wikipedia


Apple, this is one of the leading companies in the world in making and distributing communication electronics and devices. Being a worldwide company it nearly exists in all countries.

In the USA Apple computers are sold online in most shops and shipped to their destinations. Most shops are now distributing these products online, companies like Small dog electronics found in the south east of Dallas city in the in Texas state, have their market target majorly online. Fry’s outpost, Powermax, Macprices and Macworldprice finder are some of the major apple companies in the USA.

In Africa we have, most Apple store in South Africa, The ZA stores is the leading Apple store in South Africa it has been an online store where all the shopping is done by smart cards, then the shipping is done to various destinations. Also the digicape, found in south of Cape Town is the second leading store in Africa for providing Apple products mostly computers.

It is a lot cheaper to buy Apple computers in some parts of the world, such as the US, than others. If you want to pick up an economical computer on your travels make sure you get quotes for loss and damage protection. Some health insurance for international students can include theft and liability protection for students

Migrating from Windows to Apple OS

When migrating from Windows to Apple’s OS beware of the consequences and be prepared to look for workarounds for your software, especially if you are a serial blogger, writer, and social media content provider.
The design, weight, ergonomic feel, and ease of use are what set the MacBook pro series apart from other laptops. Microsoft’s Windows Live Writer! Arguably the greatest blog writing tool ever made. Unfortunately, for Steve Jobs this amazing software is not available for Apple OS.
MacJournal, the next best thing for WLW, which is smooth and operational. It offers a great l typing experience and relative ease of use. For those of your who are contemplating whether you should migrate over to a completely different operating system, and are not sure how much software you’ll be able to migrate over to your MacBook, ask a sales support representatives first.
Partitioning your hard drive on your Mac is possible, and is a doable option of you have the patience and technical ability to do it. This is done by downloading a program called VMware which partitions off your hard drive by allocating space for your window’s software. How much space is allocated is up to you. You may not like the idea of having to run two separate operating systems; do not need the clutter and the extra strain onyour brand new MacBook. But, it is something worthwhile to invest in. At any rate, I gave up a lot when I walked away from Window’s Live Writer. MacJournal was a waste of money. I didn’t like the user-interface. The whole thing was slow and clunky. It wasn’t as robust and streamline as the Window’s Live Writer.
My idea of an excellent blog writer software is one that allows you smooth transition between the software and the blogging platform. For example, you should be able to arrange the layout of the blog template directly from the software first and then press one button to submit the post write into the blogging platform easily.

Apple OS X Mavericks

Apple just revealed at the WWDC developer’s conference that their new operating system for Mac users would be available in September 2013. The official name for the latest Apple OS is the OS X Mavericks. It is quite a surprise with the name, as we all know Apple’s operating systems have cat names.
Mountain Lion, Lion, Snow Leopard, Leopard, Tiger, panther, Jaguar, Puma and Cheetah are the names of Apple OS. It is a complete break in Apple’s pattern to call their latest Mavericks. Word in the Apple camp is that Apple has decided to name all their new releases after California locations, as Maverick is a Californian surfer’s beach, but it is yet to be seen.
Some enhancements in the ne Apple OS X Maverick are for example the Tags. With the new Tags system a user will be able to add metadata to any kind of file regardless where the file is located, applications, pictures or Word for example. At present Tags will not completely replace folders, but it is expected in the future, but for now, it is just an addition to the new Apple OS.
The Calendar is another upgrade in the Apple OS X Maverick and users will not have to click to page the calendar anymore, but it is scrollable. Another added feature on the Calendar is an event inspector with a popup feature and integration with map information, weather forecasts, and travel time all within the calendar.
A tabbed Finder is now built into the ne Apple OS and users will not have to buy and install this TotalFinder Mac app anymore. Another new feature is the iCloud Keychain as a password manager and it saves username and password combination on Safari as well as the ability to regenerate unique password without using the same ones again.

Why a Mac is such an Advanced Operating System

Mac is one of the most powerful computers today simply because it has an Apple OS and specifically the Apple OS X Mountain Lion. Apple’s operating systems delivers unparalleled security, stunning graphics and amazing performance.
The software and hardware on an Apple OS is created by the same manufacturer, delivering a fully integrated system with everything working together perfectly with excellent performance. A Mac notebook for example comes with a multi-touch track pad with more than enough space to tap, swipe and pinch any of the apps on the system. Apple OS X has a great battery life as the screen dims automatically in low-light conditions and between keystrokes, there are even regulating processor activity.
Apple’s operating systems are designed to be intuitive and simple for ultimate performance. The apple OS X is built on a time-tested, rock-solid UNIX foundation providing unparalleled stability. The safety features designed with the apple OS X constantly update, encrypt, and scrutinize all technologies in keeping your computer safe.
The gatekeeper is a special feature of the Apple OS in protection against downloading and installing of malicious software on your computer. It gives added control over apps installed or downloaded. Apple OS X has features such as password assistant for locking out identity thieves, built-in encryption technologies, and anti-phishing technology from Safari in protection against fraudulent websites.
File vault 2 is also built-in and encrypts data with XTS-AES 128 encryption, which is unobtrusive and fast. Time machine is another built-in feature making the operating system different to others for encryption of removable drives, backups and easily backup external drives. Parental control preferences in the OS X is very valuable for parents wanting to keep an eye on where their children visit online even when they are not around to do so personally.

Apple Announced the IOS 7

At the World Wide Developer Conference on June 10 2013, Apple announced their new Apple OS, The IOS 7. It is the latest of Apple’s operating systems for mobiles running, iPod Touch, iPad and iPhone.
Before the announcement it was rumoured that this Apple OS will follow in the footsteps of the desktop operating systems from Apple. Some of the major new features of the iOS 7 include:
• Multi-tasking for all apps, with intelligent background updating.
• Control Center with quick access to all major controls
• Safari unifies Google search and search history
• Airdrop for easier sharing
• Photos includes anew photo app and new shared photo streams
• Siri is a new male voice and a lot more intelligent in controlling a mobile device. Integrates Bing, Wikipedia and twitter, except Google.
• IOS in the car will allow for your mobile device’s interface to appear on the car’s navigation screen and partnered with more than 10 major manufacturers of car navigators.
• Activation Lock will allow a phone to be permanently locked when stolen and phone cannot be reactivated
• Music is an updated with iTunes radio and even allows you to create your own radio station with all your favourite songs or bands. It is ad free and a free app, but for starters it will only be available to United States users.
• App store is a new location dependent and automatic app updating available.
• FaceTime audio
• Notification syncs across all devices
• Per-app VPN
• New APIs for developers
• All folders can now have pages
The appearance of the new Apple OS is the appearance of the IOS 7 and when a user changes the wallpaper of the device it completely changes the phone’s appearance. This is because of the theme-like approach they used as the change of wallpaper affect the way the phone react and also the elements of the phone look and react differently.

How to Update Software for Apple OS X

If you have Apple OS X Mountain Lion on your system you can follow the next steps to update your system and for apps you use the Mac App Store to get OS X updates.
1. Your first step is to go to the Apple menu, where you choose Software Update.
2. The Apple’s Operating Systems menu software update will automatically check for any available update. The Software Update window appears and you choose the items and click install.
3. Next you enter the administrator’s name and password.
4. You will be required to restart your computer after installation for updates to take effect.

Apps which were purchased from Mac Apple Store
Software updates for apps purchased from the Mac Apps Store does not appear in the Software Update menu. Updating purchased Apps require the opening of the App Store on your system, after which you click on Updates. It will show all the available updates of Apps which you have on your Apple OS.
How to Schedule updates
In your Software Update window found in System Preferences you are allowed to schedule automatic updates. The Apple OS by default does a weekly update, but allows you to change the intervals to monthly or daily if it your preference. Scheduled checks for updates available can also be turned off completely. Apple’s Operating Systems of the OS X v10.5 and later will allow you to download only very important updates automatically and you will be reminded when it is ready to be installed.
Software updates can also be hidden if you choose not to update certain features that are not important to you. A standalone installer is often more useful for Apple OS when you need to do installing on multiple computers and need portable files, have no Internet connection or have faster internet connection on a computer other than the one you want to update.

Apple and Steve Jobs

Steven Paul Jobs (/ˈdʒɒbz/; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American businessman and inventor widely recognized as a charismatic pioneer of the personal computer revolution.[4][5] He was co-founder, chairman, and chief executive officer of  Apple Inc. Jobs was co-founder and previously served as chief executive of Pixar Animation Studios; he became a member of the board of directors of The Walt Disney Company in 2006, following the acquisition of Pixar by Disney.

In the late 1970s, Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak engineered one of the first commercially successful lines of personal computers, the Apple II series. Jobs directed its aesthetic design and marketing along with A.C. “Mike” Markkula, Jr. and others.

In the early 1980s, Jobs was among the first to see the commercial potential of Xerox PARC’s mouse-driven graphical user interface, which led to the creation of the Apple Lisa (engineered by Ken Rothmuller and John Couch) and, one year later, of Apple employee Jef Raskin’s Macintosh. After losing a power struggle with the board of directors in 1985, Jobs left Apple and founded NeXT, a computer platform development company specializing in the higher-education and business markets.

Courtesy: Wikipedia

Apple OS & Final Cut Pro Training books

Product Details
Apple Pro Training Series: Final Cut Pro 7 by Diana Weynand (Aug 21, 2009)
Product Details
Apple Pro Training Series: Logic Pro 9 and Logic Express 9 by David Nahmani (Nov 16, 2009)
Product Details
Apple Pro Training Series: OS X Lion Support Essentials: Supporting and Troubleshooting OS X Lion by Kevin M. White (Oct 22, 2011)
Product Details
Apple Pro Training Series: Final Cut Pro X by Diana Weynand (Oct 8, 2011)
Product Details
Apple Pro Training Series: OS X Lion Server Essentials: Using and Supporting OS X Lion Server by Arek Dreyer and Ben Greisler(Dec 8, 2011)
Courtesy: Amazon

Mac OSx books


Product Details
Mac OS X Snow Leopard: The Missing Manual by David Pogue (Oct 26, 2009)
Product Details
Mac OS X Lion: The Missing Manual by David Pogue (Oct 27, 2011)
Product Details
Mac OS X Internals: A Systems Approach  by Amit Singh (Jun 29, 2006)
Product Details
Mac OS X for Unix Geeks (Leopard) by Ernest E. Rothman, Brian Jepson and Rich Rosen (Sep 25, 2008)
Product Details
Advanced Mac OS X Programming: The Big Nerd Ranch Guide (Big Nerd Ranch Guides) by Mark Dalrymple (Aug 28, 2011)
Courtesy: Amazon